By Deborah Murphy/Technical Assistance to the Government of Kenya








The high-level panel at the Government of Kenya’s side event. From L-R: Prof. Judi Wakhungu, Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources; Trigg Talley, Deputy Special Envoy for Climate Change at the U.S. Department of State; Sam Bickerseth, CEO, CDKN; Winfred Lichuma, Chairperson, National Gender and Equality Commission and Deborah Murphy, Technical Advisor for StARCK+.

The StARCK+ Technical Assistance (TA) Component supported the Government of Kenya in its preparations for and participation in the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Marrakech in November 2016, also known as COP 22. The TA Component provided support to update the Government’s climate change success stories booklet and briefing note series. These documents were distributed at the Government of Kenya’s official COP 22 side event. The Cabinet Secretary for the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Prof. Judi Wakhungu, was the chief guest at the side event that focused on how development partners, including UK-Aid, have assisted the government to implement climate change programs. Deborah Murphy Technical Advisor spoke at the event, emphasizing how the StARCK+ programme supports the government’s priorities, including the development of the Climate Change Act and Policy, Climate Finance Policy, National Adaptation Plan, and sectoral analysis of Kenya’s Nationally Determined Contribution.


By Mercy Mumo / Kenya Climate Innovation Center

Accessibility to sanitation facilities in Kenya still remains a challenge for many. Sanivation is a social enterprise that aims at providing sanitation services to not only improve the environmental health of the urban and peri-urban population, but also serves as a source of fuel. The service involves free toilet installation in homes at an affordable monthly service fee of Ksh200 payable via M-pesa.

Human waste is collected and brought back to the processing facility. Active human waste is put in a red zone before being treated through solar heating to kill pathogens. The treated waste is then transformed into briquettes that are sold to local businesses and households. The production process from waste to fuel takes five days.

The Founders, Emily Woods and Andrew Foote, met as undergraduate students at Georgia Tech Research Institute. While working in Naivasha as a sanitation engineer, Woods heard the community members’ dissatisfaction with pit latrines and saw an opportunity to implement a new sanitation system.

In 2014, Foote joined her in Naivasha, where they were inspired to develop the Sanivation waste-to-fuel model after learning that community members wanted to cook using solar energy. With massive deforestation occurring throughout the country, 80 percent of urban families in Kenya rely on charcoal. The population in Naivasha County spends over 30 percent of their income on charcoal to cook. Using charcoal indoors pollutes the air and causes health complications. Woods and Foote realized that transforming waste into briquettes was a viable alternative in providing clean energy that burns longer and produces less smoke. Rose waste from the flower farms is carbonised to create an energy dense charcoal dust which is then mixed with the liquefied faeces to make the briquettes.

Sanivation has 15 regular customers who purchase the briquettes. The client base is growing at the rate of five to six new consumers in a month. The company sells approximately 150 bags of briquettes in a month. Since inception, there are 350 households using Sanivation toilets in Karagita, Naivasha County. The toilets are also being adopted by Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres.

Sanivation has a sales team that goes through intensive training on how to target customers. They have also opened a new plant in Kakuma Refugee Camp where they are using the same concept of providing the toilets and using the waste to make briquettes which are used as cooking fuel in the camp.

The company is working on building a bigger solar concentrator that will have the capacity to treat 15 tonnes of active human waste at once. They are looking into expanding their operations to other counties in order to provide sanitation solutions to more people at an affordable rate. Sanivation is working towards selling their products and services to municipalities, county governments and flower farms. The company would also like to forge partnerships and networks with large organisations or multinationals that advocate for sanitation to assist in scaling up of the company technology.

By Emilly Mbiriti/Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund

Tosheka Textiles Ltd (TTL) is a good example of a company with a climate adaptation business model that has benefitted from StARCK+ funding under the REACT funding window of the AECF. The company was awarded US$256,382 as a repayable grant for its innovative business that was seeking to introduce a special type of silk, suited to production in semi-arid areas, into Kenya.

Cotton production in Makueni has been in a slump and there has been the need for additional and diversified sources of income. Through TTL, famers can now cope with the increasing uncertainties in weather patterns resulting from climate variability and change.

As a result of winning AECF funding , TTL has set up a Main Processing Facility (MPF) that serves two functions. First, the MPF produces Eri eggs that are sold to trained worm rearers who then produce cocoons which are purchased back by Tosheka for processing into raw silk. Second, the MPF is used to process the raw silk and cotton into machine spun yarn which is then provided to contracted weavers for the production of the fabrics.

Since 2004 Wote Community Development Organization’ self-help groups have received technical skills training in production of hand spun cotton yarn, woven, dyed and printed textiles and related products, sponsored by Marafiki Arts, a not for profit organization based in

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA. In 2010 one of the Co-founders of Marafiki Arts, Lucy Lau Bigham, started TTL with the objective of building a stronger supply chain for the products of the self-help groups and in providing the market access. The market is targeting both domestic and export markets serving the fashion and home furnishings industries. Tosheka’s business model is to work with clusters of community enterprise groups for the introduction, rearing and production of the Eri silk. These groups have been trained on the production of hand spun cotton yarn and woven, dyed and printed textiles. Eri silk blends well with cotton.

TTL is an interesting example of a woman-owned business that has the objective of working with women throughout its supply chain. This is of particular significance in Makueni, where the women who rear the silk and do the hand spinning of the fabric are from low income communities. Women in the area are traditionally known for their weaving skills, so the business is building on these and innovating in the blending of traditional with modern practices. Caterpillar rearing, is mostly done within the homestead making it attractive to women. Through TTL they have been able to have an additional income.

There is an additional “psychological” benefit as well! According to Veronicah Nduku spinning and weaving provides her welcome relief from her day to day stress, “not only do we make additional income by supplying Tosheka, we also expect to live longer, this a critical health benefit we can’t just ignore!” It was reported that it iwas the women who first showed interest in caterpillar rearing, but that men become involved once they saw the benefits of this activity. TTL has taken a holistic approach that includes men in consultations and, importantly, includes them in the value chain – such as in the building of grainage rooms and rearing units and any other jobs that require carpentry and construction skills.

There are two additional intangible, but significant benefits that the AECF has brought to TTL. The first is that by showing confidence and investing in TTL, the AECF has de-risked the company and as a result the company is beginning to look attractive to other potential investors. Second, the AECF network and “brand name” has helped to open doors for TTL. For example, through linking up with another AECF grantee (Quite Bright Films), also funded under StARCK+, TTL was invited to participate in KCB Lion’s Den, a Kenyan TV show. As a result, the company won an equity investment from two of the Lion’s Den investors who also have wide experience in the fashion industry and bring their expertise into the company.

The StARCK+ Adaptation learning report undertaken in November 2016 indicated that while caterpillar production may not be seen by farmers as an adaptation to climate change, it appears to be climate resilient, and offers an alternative, highly profitable, livelihood activity that can be expected to be sustainable under drought conditions, where other activities such as cotton production and perhaps even fruit production may become less viable. See more:

By Nancy Rapando (Act!) and Noah Lusaka (ALIN)

The climate change realities faced by rural communities demand new and innovative ways to communicate to small scale farmers. Communication technologies such as the internet provide huge opportunities for farmers to access critical information on a range of topics.

Through participatory scenario planning Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN) in partnership with other stakeholders and KMD disseminated climate advisories from Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) alerts. ALIN recognizes that access to information is a basic human right. ALIN has innovatively used community-based ICT facilities known as Maarifa centres to enable some of the most remote communities to gain access to information on climate smart agriculture products, and weather information to improve their livelihoods. In these centres, farmers are exposed to ALIN’s innovations known as Soko+ which involves the use of short messaging services, blogs, iPods and videos.

One of such centres is Ngarua Maarifa Centre in Ol-Moran Ward, Laikipia County that was established to assist famers make better and informed decisions in their farming based on factual weather information.

Peter Gicheru, a beneficiary of Ngarua Maarifa Centre and the secretary of Matwiku Horticulture Group, a 21 member self-help group, attests to the benefits of accessing e-platform services. This includes services such as the use of the internet to learn about crops that are resilient to climate change and market access. In one of his visits to the Maarifa centre, Gicheru downloaded several materials on sustainable agricultural practices and shared with other farmers. Gicheru has been able to access information on growing tomatoes, cabbages, beans and capsicum.

Peter Kanyita, a member of the Matwiku horticulture group, has been using basin irrigation method in his onion farm for a long time, which he says was a time consuming costly activity. This is because of the high price of fuel and pipes for irrigation. Furrow and Basin irrigation are two of the most widely used types of irrigation in the area. These two types of irrigation are inefficient in water conservation. However, after exposure to better irrigation models at Ngarua Maarifa Centre, Peter embraced drip irrigation systems for his crops. ALIN in partnership with Act! supported the Matwiku Horticulture group established a one acre drip irrigation system that uses water efficiently therefore enabling group members to grow crops throughout the year! Through field days and extension services, many farmers have adapted this affordable water conserving drip technology that also helps them reduce labour, energy and farm input costs while maximizing production.

By Stella Ndirangu (ACRE Africa) and Joab Osumba (Finance Innovation in Climate Change Fund)

FICCF Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) component works in collaboration with Agriculture and Climate Risk Enterprise Ltd - ACRE Africa to disseminate weather information to farmers. ACRE Africa has installed three automated weather stations (AWS) in Kanjuiri, Kihoto and Rutara Secondary Schools in Ngorika, Nyandarua County where the programme is involved in a climate smart agriculture initiative. The objective of gathering the weather data in the area is to better understand the relationship between weather, animal health, milk production and fodder production.

The purpose of installing the stations in schools is to provide a safe place for the weather stations, as well as provide students with an opportunity to access and learn more about weather data with the permission from the Ministry of Education.

ACRE Africa organized a Climate and Weather Information Field Day on 11 March 2017 at Kihoto secondary school, Mawingo village. The field day brought in the local communities to interact with stakeholders to learn about the correlation between weather and climate smart dairy production. This will creates a platform to enable farmers to receive localized agro-weather information to support their decision making on when to plant animal feeds, store forage (hay and silage) and how to manage dairy production in cases of adverse weather. The climate information will also help farmers to plan for any emerging livestock diseases that might emerge as a result of climate variability.

Currently the schools are able to access and analyze the data in excel spreadsheets. ACRE Africa anticipates that in future the teachers will teach the students how to analyze the local weather data against the projected national and international weather patterns and discuss it with the community.



By Victor Orindi and Jane Kiiru (The Adaptation Consortium)

The Kenyan government declared the current drought affecting at least 23 arid and semi-arid counties a national disaster in February 2017. Humans, livestock and wildlife lives are at risk due to the drought. Additionally, pastoralists have not had a chance to recover from droughts during previous years.

The Adaptation Consortium has initiated various projects through the County Climate Change Fund (CCCF) to support communities in arid and semi-arid counties to build their resilience to climate change including the current drought. Through the project, the climate change committees together with communities identify, prioritize and implement innovative projects such as the rehabilitation and fencing of the Harr Bibi Pan in in Kinna Ward (in the picture below). The fencing, and building of a water kiosk and watering troughs outside the perimeter fence has resulted in 

controlled and separate access to water by human and livestock. Investment in watering troughs ensures animals do not empty their wastes in the pan as they drink water. The local community has noted that the water is now clean and lasts longer contributing to reduction in water stress.

The Isiolo County Climate Change Committees have also invested in reviving the Dedha – customary natural resource management institution that governs the use of land based resources through a strong traditional system. This system allows pastoralists to periodically move livestock according to the different seasons starting with wet season grazing area, to dry season and lastly to drought reserves. A recent study undertaken by the Adaptation Consortium found that the Dedha system has reduced livestock mortality by 60% as compared to previous years of droughts; and reduced disease outbreaks due to controlled livestock influx from other wards and counties. Due to the current drought, there has been massive migration of livestock into Isiolo county from the neighbouring counties, for example, Marsabit, Samburu, Garissa and a few from Wajir.

By Nancy Omolo and Debrah Murphy

The Climate Change Act, 2016 was signed into law on 6th May 2016. The goal of the Act is to provide a regulatory framework for an enhanced response to climate change, and to provide mechanisms and measures to improve resilience to climate change and promote low carbon development. The Act adopts a mainstreaming approach, provides a legal basis for climate change activities through the national climate change action plan, and establishes the National Climate Change Council and the Climate Fund. The Technical Assistance Component of the StARCK+ Programme provided support to the Government of Kenya to develop the Kenya Climate Change Bill. The support included legal advice and input; drafting and review of the Bill; and support for meetings with key stakeholders, including parliamentarians, county governments, sector ministries, civil society and the private sector. The focus of TA support has shifted to operationalizing the Act and developing associated policies and regulations.


By Nancy Omolo

The Kenya Climate Ventures (KCV) was officially launched by Prof. Judi Wakhungu, Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources and Regional Development Authorities (MENR) in July 2016, in Nairobi.

Kenyan startups and entrepreneurs in the green technology space stand to benefit from a $5 million (Sh.5 billion) fund. The climate ventures facility is mainly there to help the startups move to the next level and scale their business. It targets small and medium enterprises that operate in agribusiness, renewable energy and water management sectors. To qualify for funding, startups must have good
management teams to implement their innovative business plans which market green technology products that have a greater competitive advantage.

KCV is part of infoDev’s Climate Technology Programme, within the World Bank Group. In Kenya, it receives direct financial support from bilateral donor agencies including the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) and UK’s Department for International Development (DFID). KCV will focus on investing capital (equity or long-term debt) in early stage clean ventures that have already tested the commercial viability of their products and need to commercialize.

By Nancy Omolo

Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) and Kiambu County Government with DFID support through FICCF held a validation workshop in June 2016 on Kiambu Government Clean Energy Draft Policy. The Clean Energy policy is guided by the need to limit greenhouse gases emissions and to promote private sector investment in clean energy. The policy contributes towards the national government efforts for universal access to electricity and modern clean cooking solutions.

Recent figures on access to electricity in Kenya show that 33.6 million people approximately 80% of the population of 42 million in Kenya lacked access to electricity in 2011 (International Energy Agency 2013). This means that Kenya has the seventh highest deficit in access to electricity in the world, making it a priority country on the list of several organisations working towards universal access to electricity. For example, Kenya is one of the ‘high-impact’ countries of the SE4ALL initiative, one of the six target countries of USAID’s Power Africa initiative, a key beneficiary of the World Bank’s Lighting Africa initiative and one of the target countries of DFID’s ambitious plans to promote green minigrids in Africa under the International Climate Fund (ICF).

By Nancy Omolo and Elizabeth Mwangi

In tackling the problem of household air pollution and reducing the impacts associated with emissions of black carbon, ClimateCare has promoted the sale of Safi ethanol cookers.

Ethanol Stoves are rated amongst the best cook stoves by the Global Alliance for Clean Cook Stoves in terms of the stove performance, including efficiency, total emissions, indoor emissions and safety. The use of ethanol stoves by households in Kibera contributes to both health and climate impacts. ClimateCare has commissioned Climate Solutions Consulting to undertake a study to assess the impacts of using ethanol cookers in households in Kibera. The first part of the study focused on black carbon emission factor measurement for ethanol, charcoal and kerosene stoves in Kibera, Kenya. The measurements for this study were taken in 30 households using ethanol, charcoal and kerosene stoves.

The study revealed that the Safi ethanol cooker reduced the climate impact associated with black and organic carbon by 91% compared to the kerosene stove and by 83% compared to the charcoal stove. Emission factors for carbon monoxide, particulate matter and black carbon were of a magnitude higher for charcoal stoves than for the kerosene and the ethanol stoves. The difference in particulate matter emissions

between charcoal stoves and ethanol stoves is wide but not so between the kerosene stove and the ethanol stove. It is noted therefore that the greatest health impact is expected to be for households switching from charcoal to ethanol.


A vehicle inventory study for Kenya released in 2015 showed that on average, the country was importing less fuel efficient vehicles. The average CO2 emission of vehicles imported in 2012 was 178.2 g/km compared to 185.4 g/km in 2012. This is equivalent to an average fuel consumption of 7.4 Litres per 100 Kilometres in 2010 and 7.7 l/100Kms in 2012.

Building on these findings, UNEP through DFID funding, supported the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) to prepare policy proposals to support importation of cleaner, more fuel efficient vehicles. The ERC collaborated with the University of Nairobi to develop two policy proposals – a feebate tax system and vehicle labelling scheme.

A feebate tax structure proposes a fee or levy on inefficient vehicles and a rebate or refund on efficient vehicles while a vehicle labeling scheme provides information on vehicle fuel efficiency to consumers. These two policy proposals were presented to stakeholders at the national workshop in May 2016, in Nairobi. Stakeholders welcomed the policy proposals that would promote import of cleaner vehicles but called for enhanced sensitization on the policies. The government gave its commitment to support cleaner vehicle importation if the policies proposed were practical and sustainable.

At the workshop, Mauritius and India gave their experience in implementing similar policies. Neighboring countries of Ethiopia and Uganda that are considering implementing cleaner vehicle policies also participated in the workshop. These proposals will now be finalized taking into account the workshop discussions and submitted to the relevant government agencies to consideration and possible adoption.

Source: GFEI/feebate_kenya2016.asp